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Understanding PPMVD and O2 Level Requirements

CataStak SCR Systems

Have you ever wondered what ppmvd (ref. 3% O2) means? This term is often seen in air permits and is referenced as the emission unit for pollutants such as NOx from boilers.

PPMVD stands for “parts per million by volume, dry”.  For example, “9 ppmvd” refers to (9 / 1,000,000) x 100 = 0.0009% of the volume of flue gas. The reason they stipulate “dry” is because when the emission is measured, the instrument typically removes all moisture (water) from the sample. The “ref. 3% O2” is required as a benchmark for the oxygen content in the flue gas. This is because the boiler will operate at various O2 levels, and the air district needs to normalize the measurements.

Sometimes, emission limits are referenced with different O2 levels for equipment in the same plant.  For example, on a boiler application, NOx may be listed as 9 ppmvd (ref. 3% O2) whereas for a gas turbine it might be 9 ppmvd (ref. 15% O2).  What does it mean when the O2 levels are different?

The difference in the example above is that O2 is referenced at 3% and 15%. Looking at actual numbers will help explain the difference. Let's say a boiler or gas turbine is firing natural gas and the heat input is 100 million Btu/hr. The fuel flow is the same for each case, about 4500 lb/hr. The air flow, however, will be different. 

For boilers, the burner typically runs at about 15% excess air (this is 15% extra air flow above the stoichiometric requirement). In other words, 15% of the air flow passes through the system without being oxidized. This is why the stack O2 (O2 is the extra oxygen in the boiler flue gas flow) is about 3% on a dry basis. This also explains why the 3% O2 benchmark is typically used.Based on the 100 million Btu/hr input and 15% excess air, the boiler air flow is about 81,000 lb/hr. 

On the other hand, gas turbines typically run at higher excess air levels as compared to boilers. To get 15% O2, dry in the stack, the excess air works out to about 230%. The air flow would be about 233,000 lb/hr with the gas turbine application. Stack flow, or the sum of fuel and air, differs in boilers vs. gas turbines:

Boiler stack flow:                            4500 + 81,000 = 85,500 lb/hr
Turbine stack flow:                         4500 + 240,000 = 244,500 lb/hr

You can see that for the same heat input of 100 million Btu/hr, the stack flow will be quite different for these two applications. This also explains why the O2 benchmark is different for these two cases. When comparing the NOx values in lb/mmbtu, we have:

9 ppmvd (ref. 3% O2) NOx firing natural gas is equivalent to 0.011 lb/mmbtu
9 ppmvd (ref. 15% O2) NOx firing natural gas is equivalent to 0.032 lb/mmbtu

This means that even though both 9 ppmvd volumetric numbers are the same, the numbers are actually different on a weight basis (i.e. lb/mmbtu).

Nationwide Boiler provides temporary and permanent solutions with our CataStak SCR System for boilers, gas turbines, and other demanding applications, to meet the most stringent emissions requirements. Contact us today for more infromation. 1-800-227-1966

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Giving Back at Nationwide Boiler's 38th Annual Charity Golf Tournament

Nationwide Boiler 38th Annual Charity Golf Tournament

"We make a living by what we get, but we make a life by what we give." ―Winston Churchill

NBI PB Golf Tourn 2018 110
Nationwide Boiler’s 38th Annual Charity Golf Tournament was one for the books. We started off the week with a practice round at the Spyglass Hill Golf Course, with 48 golfers competing in a scramble and ‘Bushwood Ball’ competition. This led us to our welcoming banquet where guests dressed up in themed attire, based off of the movie “Caddyshack”. With gophers and baby ruth candy bars at each table, and a sign that read, “Welcome to the Bushwood Country Club” upon entry to the banquet hall, the theme was in full effect.


Guests enjoyed drinks, mingled, and purchased raffle tickets during the cocktail hour in the new Fairway One Room at Pebble Beach. Dinner consisted of a clam bake buffet with mouthwatering lobster, oysters, prime rib, and more, followed by a number of choices for desert. At the end of the night, President Larry Day, or Judge Smales for the evening, announced the scramble & ‘Bushwood Ball’ winners, along with our big winner that evening, Steve Graves from Campbell-Sevey. Mr. Graves won the “Raffle of a Lifetime” prize; a golf stay & play package at the Broadmoor in Colorado Springs, including $600 in airfare.

Bright and early the next morning hole signs were set out on the green and guests arrived to check-in for the big day of golf. Golfers had the opportunity to buy in for the “Best Ball” prize (a 50/50 style competition), purchase mulligans, and receive their thank-you gift, a Pebble Beach golf towel. As foursomes finished up at the 18th-hole, scorecards were collected and golfers had time to relax and socialize at the scoring room as other foursomes completed the course. That evening, over 100 guests arrived at the Pebble Beach Room for the awards banquet and ceremony, where additional fundraising activities were held. This included a card raffle with a $1,000 prize, and both silent and live auction events.

The food was delicious, the speakers were fantastic, and the event was a huge success. At the end of the evening, Nationwide Boiler’s Bill Testa announced our tournament winners: Miles Freeman from HTS brought home first place in the callaway division, Mike Moore from MG Sales brought home first place in the Handicap division, and our overall low gross winner was Jordan Bliss. The big winners, however, were Make-A-Wish® Greater Bay Area and the ABMA Scholarship fund. Nationwide President, Larry Day, Nationwide Boiler 2018 281announced at the end of the night that we raised at least $50,000 for the charities. Our final donation amount was $51,435, and a check was cut for each charity in the amount of $25,717.50.

It is truly a joy hosting such a great event with such friendly and generous people. We look forward to continuing this tradition for many years to come.

Save the date! Next year’s tournament is scheduled for May 8 – 9, 2019 and will coincide with Pebble Beach’s Centennial Anniversary and the return of the US Open Championship in June, which will make the course conditions for our tournament much tougher (i.e. narrow fairways and longer rough). It is surely an event you won’t want to miss!

Like Nationwide Boiler Inc. on facebook, and check out all of the photos from the event!

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Free Webinar Alert: The Importance of Optimal SCR Operation in Diverse Applications

SCR for Fired Heater

Nationwide Environmental Solutions, a strategic business unit of Nationwide Boiler Inc., has extensive experience in SCR technology with over 100 installations across the country. We started out as a user on our rental boiler fleet, mastered the design and operation of the system, and began selling the superior product to our customers. We can now provide SCR systems for NOx reduction to as low as 2½ ppm for boilers, fired heaters, gas turbines, and other demanding applications.

Users in a diverse set of applications are experiencing changes in emissions regulations, driven by federal, tribal, and state implementation plans. With more stringent NOx control limits, utility and industrial industries are facing many challenges in achieving compliance. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology has been emerging as a clear preference with new plant construction and retrofits to existing plants, and we want to help guide you to make smart decisions for your SCR design.

Join us on March 28th at 11AM EST for a live webinar, hosted by Director of Environmental Solutions, Sean McMenamin. Sean will discuss key considerations for your SCR design, including:

   - An overview of current and future anticipated NOx emissions regulations
   - Understanding NOx reduction control strategies and comparison of control technologies
   - Understanding "next generation" SCR design and performance expectations
   - NOx technology options utilizing alternative reagents
   - Operating conditions and their effects on SCR sizing, design and lifecycle costs
   - Various case studies

Register today! This is a webinar your won't want to miss.

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Nationwide Boiler Representing at the Pulp and Paper Reliability & Maintenance Conference This Week

paper

Nationwide Boiler is representing at the Pulp and Paper Reliability & Maintenance Conference this week in Raleigh, NC. This is our first year participating in this event, scheduled for March 19 - 22. The conference is geared towards the maintenance and operation teams in the paper industry, and provides high-impact presentations, technical sessions, workshops, and networking opportunities. Since 1986 the Pulp and Paper Reliability & Maintenance Conference has developed a devoted following of reliability & maintenance professionals and has hosted over 400 speakers that have shared their knowledge and experiences.

If you are at the conference, be sure to stop by the Nationwide Boiler table. Meet our Eastern US Business Manager, Jim Barbeau, and learn about the many products and services that Nationwide Boiler can offer to the pulp and paper industry!

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