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Deaerator Basics

The removal of dissolved oxygen from boiler feedwater is absolutely necessary to protect your boiler equipment from severe corrosion. To ensure trouble-free boiler operation, a good deaerator is essential.

Deaerators in industrial steam systems are mechanical devices used to remove air and other dissolved gases from boiler feedwater in order to protect the system from corrosion. Dissolved oxygen in boiler feedwater will attach to the walls of metal piping and other metallic equipment and will form oxides (rust). It also combines with any dissolved carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid that causes further corrosion. A dissolved oxygen level of 5 parts per billion (PPB) or lower is needed to prevent corrosion in most high pressure boilers, accomplished by reducing the concentration of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide to a level where corrosion is minimized.

The two major types of deaerators are the tray type and the spray type. In both cases, the major portion of gas removal is accomplished by spraying cold makeup water into a steam environment.

Tray-type deaerating heaters release dissolved gases in the incoming water by reducing it to a fine spray as it cascades over several rows of trays. The steam that makes intimate contact with the water droplets then scrubs the dissolved gases by its counter-current flow. The steam heats the water to within 3-5º F of the steam saturation temperature and it should remove all but the very last traces of oxygen. The deaerated water then falls to the storage space below, where a steam blanket protects it from recontamination.

Nozzles and trays should be inspected regularly to insure that they are free of deposits and are in their proper position.

Spray-type deaerating heaters work on the same general philosophy as the tray-type, but differ in their operation. Spring-loaded nozzles located in the top of the unit spray the water into a steam atmosphere that heats it. The steam heats the water, and at the elevated temperature the solubility of oxygen is extremely low and most of the dissolved gases are removed from the system by venting. The spray will reduce the dissolved oxygen content to 20-50 ppb, while the scrubber or trays further reduce the oxygen content to approximately 7 ppb or less.

During normal operation, the vent valve must be open to maintain a continuous plume of vented vapors and steam at least 18 inches long. If this valve is throttled too much, air and non-condensable gases will accumulate in the deaerator. This is known as air blanketing and can be remedied by increasing the vent rate.

For optimum oxygen removal, the water in the storage section must be heated to within 5º F of the temperature of the steam at saturation conditions. From inlet to outlet, the water is deaerated in less than 10 seconds. Call us today is you have additional questions about deaerators and how important they are to your entire system.
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The removal of dissolved oxygen from boiler feedwater is absolutely necessary to protect your boiler.
Monday, 06 July 2009 09:05
Guest — ddd
nie one
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Wednesday, 07 August 2019 07:21
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The "No Surprise" Check Off Sheet

We know that renting boilers, whether in an emergency, for scheduled maintenance, or to meet peak-season demands, can be full of surprises. Frequently, even experienced renters are surprised by what isn't included with most rental boilers. And most surprises are expensive - both in time and money.

Before you make a rental commitment call Nationwide Boiler, the "No Surprise" boiler professionals and ask if the above items are included, then call our competitors. We will do whatever it takes to make sure your rental project is a success, without any unpleasant surprise!

1.    Boiler Inspection
Have you inspected the boiler for plugged tubes, age, electrical etc? Some people rent boilers like calling a used car lot, negotiate price and then make a deal over the phone. This can be disastrous.

2.   Freight
Are the freight charges firm? Some boilers may have to take indirect route (road clearance problems) costing many thousand of dollars extra.

3.    In-transit Rental
When does the rent start and stop? On rail shipment, delays are common and your rent can keep running for three or four weeks in each direction adding one-two month's of unexpected rent.

4.    Steam Header Valve
Is one included with the boiler? New ones cost between $2,000.00 and $8,000.00 each.

5.   Blowdown Valves
Are they included? New ones cost $200.00 to $1,000.00 each. Are they mounted or shipped loose?

6.   Voltage
Is the boiler set up for proper voltage prior to shipment? Is the fan starter included? These items can save you money on fieldwork.

7.   Smokestack
Is one included and does it have properly sized transition pieces? Does it have to be shipped on separate truck? Freestanding stacks can be a real problem installing and removing. This can mean considerable fieldwork and expense.

8.   Control Panel
Is the panel mounted on the boiler or shipped loose? Is it weatherproof? Considerable time and expense in field wiring and tubing is common with remote panels.

9.   Guarantee
What will the boiler company cover on parts and callbacks? Some companies say return the broken part to the factory and you pay freight and installation labor.

10.   Economizer
Is one included and is it pre-piped? Do you need separate support and transition pieces? Will it be costly to install and remove?

11.    Blower
Is the blower on the boiler or shipped loose on a separate truck? This could be expensive for freight and installation costs.

12.   Weather Proof
Is the boiler designed for outdoor use? If not, additional cost will be involved to build an enclosure. Electrical controls could be water soaked during installation and shipping.

13.   Hydrostatic Test
Will you be charged for a hydrostatic test when the boiler is returned?

14.   Shipping Damage
Will you have to go back to the carrier to cover broken parts, etc. during shipment or will the rental company assume responsibility?

15.   Loading & Shoring of Refractory
Will you be charged for loading at the storage location including blocking of the firebrick? This can cost $2,000.00 to $5,000.00 and the same when you load out at job-site. This could mean $4,000.00 to $10,000.00 of unexpected cost.

16.   Safety Valves
Are the boiler safety valves set at the proper pressure to protect your steam system? If not, you may need new valves costing $200.00 to over $1,500.000 each or have them reset for $200.00 to over $600.00 each.

17.   Oil Pump
Is a pump set needed and is it included in the rental price? Is it pre-piped and wired as an integral part of the boiler unit? If not included, this could cost $500.00 to $5,000.00 material and labor over the rental cost.

18.    Testing
Has the proposed rental boiler been test fired recently? Is it coming direct from another job without shop check out? If this is the case many start-up problems can develop causing delays.

19.   Maintenance
Will you be charged for routine maintenance when boiler is returned to storage? Some charge for new gaskets, gauge glasses, painting, cleaning, washout, and flat tires on trailer and refractory repairs.

20.   Catwalks & Ladders
Is the boiler supplied with catwalks & ladders? These items can save you valuable time and money during installation and operation. Savings of $500.00 to $2,000.00 in man-hours are not uncommon.
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GRUZ-Transport system including information about global logistics, air freight, ocean transportation, trucking and other useful i... Read More
Tuesday, 03 November 2009 14:36
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Proposed Rule for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The EPA today proposed a new reporting ruling that would require large, direct emitters of greenhouse gases to comply with new reporting requirements. These would include energy intensive sectors such as cement production, iron and steel production and electricity generation.

EPA Administrator Lisa P. Jackson realizes the importance of gathering critical data in order to better understand climate change for a healthier future.  She notes that this proposed requirement will not affect small businesses, but is rather aimed at large businesses, those that have emissions equal to or greater than a threshold of 25,000 metric tons per year.

"Our efforts to confront climate change must be guided by the best possible information. Through this new reporting, we will have comprehensive and accurate data about the production of greenhouse gases. This is a critical step toward helping us better protect our health and environment - all without placing an onerous burden on our nation's small businesses."

The EPA estimates that the expected cost to comply with the reporting requirements to the private sector would be $160 million for the first year. In subsequent years, the annualized costs for the private sector would be $127 million. This rule is being developed under the authority of the Clean Air Act and the proposed rule will be open for public comment for 60 days after publication in the Federal Register. Two public hearings will be held during the comment period.

Nationwide Boiler's low NOx solutions are developed for companies, large and small, who want to do their part in combating climate change. We have upgraded our fleet of rental boilers with Low NOx equipment in order to easily meet emissions requirements in any part of the county. For those customers wanting even lower emissions our CataStak SCR systems have been proven to reduce NOx emissions below 5 ppm in over 50 installations and that list continues to grow.

Read our latest press release to learn how one major food processor in California achieved NOx emissions well below the AQMD's requirement - testing at only 0.5 ppm NOx.

Nationwide Boiler is ready to help your facility meet your "green" goals. Contact us today and let us know how we can help.

Click here for more information on the proposed rule.

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Free Energy Efficiency Webcasts Offered by the DOE

Are you interested in learning how to improve your facility's energy efficiency? We hope that most, if not all of you are.

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) offers no-cost webcasts to help industrial companies improve energy efficiency. This is achieved through an understanding of current and future technologies, ITP tools, energy assessments and utilizing industry wide best practices.  Past subjects include the following: Energy Assessments: What are the Benefits to Small and Medium Sized Facilities, State and Utility Partnerships, Super Boiler Technologies and Using Wireless Technology to Reduce Facility Energy Usage.

Webcasts are offered on Thursdays from 1:00 to 2:00 pm (Eastern Time) and they are a convenient and cost-effective way to learn how you can improve your operations and energy use.

Nationwide Boiler has helped many of our customers realize positive gains through energy efficiency upgrades with a quick return on investment. Give us a call today so we can better understand your needs and can present a solution that's right for you 800-227-1966.

Upcoming webcast sessions:
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